This is a discussion on Happy BD USA! within the Ted Brown forums, part of the Gun Professionals category; Here it is July 5th already. Iím running behind as usual. Itís a good time to maybe rehash some excerpts from information Iíve passed around ...
Here it is July 5th already. Iím running behind as usual. Itís a good time to maybe rehash some excerpts from information Iíve passed around before. Iím sure some of the newer readers (and maybe some older ones) can benefit from them.
AIMING, SIGHT ADJUSTMENTS, & ZEROING
YOUR NEW M1, M1A/M14 RIFLE
One of the most important aspects of competition shooting is for the shooter to have absolute confidence in his rifles ability to hit the target where he or she points it. This must be true of the very first shot out of a cold barrel as well as the last shot of the match. For the shooter to do his part, good zeros have to be established. This instruction is designed to help the shooter aim, adjust sights, and establish zeros which will do just that. This information is mostly "barrowed" from the ALL NATIONAL GUARD HIGH POWER RIFLE SQUAD COACHES SCHOOL.
AIMING is the first fundamental of marksmanship taught to new shooters. There are four aspects to proper aiming: a. The relationship between the eye and the rear sight; b. Sight alignment; c. Sight picture; d. Breathing and aiming.
The shooter must place his eye in a consistent position behind the sight. This is done by using a spot weld where the cheek contacts the same spot on the stock for each shot placing the eye about three inches from the sight.
The eye can focus instantly from one distance to another, but cannot focus at more than one distance at a time. To avoid distortion, shooters must look straight out of the middle of the eye and not out of the top or corner of the eye. Try to keep your eye and head in a natural position to eliminate eye strain and involuntary eye movement. The eye will focus best in its natural position, looking straight out of the center of the eye.
Correct sighting is to look through the rear sight and focus on the front sight, then on sight picture and focus back to the front sight. Do not fix vision on the sight picture for more than several seconds. When you look at an image for to long you burn the image into the area of perception. This image may be mistaken for a true sight picture and will damage performance.
SIGHT ALIGNMENT is the relationship between the front and rear sight with respect to the eye. This is the most important part of aiming because any error in sight alignment is multiplied by range. The farther you shoot, the greater the error will be.
Correct sight alignment is to center the top of the front sight, horizontally and vertically in the rear aperture. The human eye has a natural tendency to center objects and will you will shoot more consistently with this method.
SIGHT PICTURE is simply adding the target to sight alignment. Place the target at the top of the front sight with the blade just touching the bottom of the bulls eye. This is known as a "6 o'clock hold". It creates a distinctive aiming point that looks something like a lollypop.
The 6 o'clock hold gives the most consistent results in shot placement.
BREATHING is very important with respect to the aiming process. Lets face it, we all have to breath. It is difficult to hit the target when your lips are turning blue! However, breathing has to be controlled in order to avoid high and low shots that result from your chest expanding and contracting when you breath. Proper breath control requires the shooter to
breath normally, let the breath out and stop at the moment you have your sight picture, then you start your trigger squeeze. A respiratory cycle lasts four to five seconds. Between each cycle there is a pause of two or three seconds and this is the time you should fire the shot. If your sight picture is not right or you have not settled down during this pause, stop and start the sequence over again.
In rapid fire you must exhale and lock your breath when you have your sight picture, squeeze off the round, recoil, come back on target, inhale, exhale and repeat the process for each shoot.
SIGHT ADJUSTMENTS must be made when your shot or shot group is not centered. Each click of elevation will move the point of impact one inch at 100 yards. Each click of windage will move the point of impact one inch at 100 yards with standard sights or 1/2 inch with National Match sights. The hooded aperture on NM sights can be rotated to change elevation 1/2 inch at 100 yards. The rule is: move the rear sight the same direction that you want to move the impact of the bullet. In order to hit the target in the first place, you must determine your rifles zero.
The ZERO of the rifle is the sight setting in elevation and windage to hit the center of the target at a given range on a day when no wind is blowing. To obtain this setting, you must first create a mechanical zero that will insure a first round hit in the 10 ring with the sight set for distance and no windage.
To set a mechanical zero, first adjust the rear sight to index on the center line on the back or the receiver. Raise the aperture to the known distance you are going to shoot and fire a three shot group on the target. At two hundred yards, you should be centered with an elevation of not more than eight clicks or less than four clicks. If your sight are below four clicks you will need a taller front sight. if you are above eight clicks you can file down the front sight blade. A change of .008 ( eight thousands ) of an inch will change the point of impact about one inch at 100 yards. Be careful to maintain the angle at the top of the sight blade and keep it square on top.
To change the windage, with the index marks centered, move the front sight the opposite direction that you want to move the impact of the bullet.
Another words, if you want to move the impact left, you must move the front sight to the right, etc. Remember that this must be done on a day with no wind blowing. Once the mechanical zero is set, mark the top of the windage knob with a spot of paint so it will be easy to tell how many clicks out of index you are at any point when shooting.
Disregard the numbers on the elevation knob. They are calibrated in meters and it is more accurate to count clicks up from the bottom setting when adjusting the rear sight.
Setting the mechanical zero will help eliminate errors and keep your shots centered even when you forget to adjust to your no-wind zero.
The no-wind zero is that sight adjustment that actually puts the shot in the center of the target when there is no wind blowing. This may not be exactly the same as your mechanical zero, but should be within one or two clicks of windage from the mechanical zero. If you set it this close, the first shot should still be within the 10 ring even if you forget to make the adjustment.
Once all this is established, windage adjustments can be made with confidence in the knowledge that your rifle will shoot where you have set the sights!
Aloha to you too,
There are two very good publications that I'm sure you will find interesting.
M14 and M14A1 rifles and Rifle Marksmanship FM 23-8
The US Army Service Rifle Marksmanship Guide
These two publications are no longer in print but copies are out there. You may want to check with nicolausassociates.com.
The Marksmanship Guide now being published covers advanced marksmanship with the M16 rifle, but older publications will cover the M14. Most of the information is germain to both rifles.
While your at it, stop by the Chart House and have a Maitai and some Pupus.
Ah yes, for those of you not familiar with Island cuisine, a pupu is a hors d'oeuvre. For those that don't speak French, an appetizer. At least that's what my wife tells me and she should know since she is from Honolulu. I'm just a country boy from Nevada so it's all news to me.