Repost by request via PM. I think I need to redo some of the pictures (at least resize them) so the full-size images are available.
TO DISASSEMBLE M14/M1A BOLT WITHOUT FIELD STRIPPING RIFLE - with revised pictures
(I think it's time to get out and shoot more. In the pictures that follow, you'll spot the dust build-up in the rifle. I think I also should oil the M10 tool, as it's showing some signs of rust)
You will need a FIRED .30-'06 case, an M10 tool for the M1 Garand, and one USGI cleaning rod section: (1)
Assemble the cleaning rod to the M10 Tool as shown:
You may do without the cleaning rod section by simply using a round rod such as a drift punch or screwdriver. This is just a bit neater. (2)
Insert the tool into the chamber, screwdriver end first. The end shown above (with the ear) should be touching the bolt, as shown below: just pretend that's NOT rust in the tool
Shown here is a side view:
(note the slight peening on the top corner of the extractor. Gotta love SA!) (3)
Push the bolt forward so that the rear of the tool is against the bolt face and the ear is under the bottom of the extractor. Below, you can see where the extractor has been pushed outward by the tool: **
If you're just changing the extractor, you'll want to keep the muzzle pointed slightly downward from here on to keep the firing pin from falling out of the rear of the bolt. Some have suggested that you lower the hammer to hold the firing pin in place. This won't work here because the M10 tool holds the bolt to far back. The bolt is actually above the hammer, holding the hammer hooks off of the trigger altogether. It WILL work with the .30-'06 case, as the bolt is far enough forward (see alternate method below). The hammer actually hits the back of the bolt, leaving a slight gap between the firing pin tang and the hammer. The firing pin will move slightly, but won't fall all the way out.** (4)
Place your thumb on top of the extractor. Rotate the tool counter-clockwise (from the buttstock end) while holding the extractor with your thumb. The extractor will pop past the detent. Alternately, you may simply cover the top of the action with your hand to keep the parts contained as they fly out of the bolt. I like to use my thumb as it offers more control.
Here's a front view with the extractor popped up past its detent:
And here it is with the extractor removed. You can see here how the tool interacts with the bolt face and where the ear ends up after rotating the tool: **
If you're just changing the extractor, you can insert the new one here. Rotate the tool back clockwise and press down firmly on the extractor until it compresses the detent spring. You may have to retract the bolt slightly (after the extractor is almost all the way home) to get the ear on the M10 tool out of the way in order to get the extractor all the way in.** (5)
Now, pull the bolt back. You can see the ejector sticking out of the bolt face. If you look in through the extractor stem hole, you'll see the ejector spring:
Here's another view. Note the cut in the side of the ejector. The extractor stem passes through this area to hold the ejector in place. The firing pin has similar shape. To remove it, you'll have to pull out the trigger group. There is no need to separate the action from the stock:
And, finally, the bolt guts laid out. You can see the shoulders on the ejector and firing pin.
TO REASSEMBLE: (1)
First, insert the firing pin into the bolt. It's possible to do this with the action in the stock, though it's much easier with it out. I've shown it here with the action out of the stock for clarity to better show how the firing pin tang sits into its slot in the bolt:
From this point forward, you'll want to keep the muzzle slightly downward so that the firing pin doesn't fall out. (2)
Next, hold the bolt to the rear and insert the ejector spring and ejector into the front of the bolt. Align the slot in the ejector as shown to line up with the extractor stem. Install the extractor detent and spring. It's probably safer to do this with the bolt locked back (to save your fingers in case the bolt slips), but I've shown it here half-closed for clarity: (3)
Insert the EMPTY .30-'06 case into the chamber. Slowly let the bolt close on it. There's really no need to let it slam shut. You'll probably need to give it a little nudge for the last little bit. Look down through the hole for the extractor stem to be sure the ejector and firing pin are lined up properly. The hole should be clear: (4)
Insert the extractor stem into its hole: (5)
Press downward firmly. The extractor should snap into place: (6)
Flip over the rifle and look in through the mag well. The bottom of the extractor stem should be flush with the bottom of the bolt. You can see the end of the stem just behind the bolt face here:
If it sticks out, you can either file it down or replace it with a USGI one. I would replace it with USGI, because if the stem is too long, you'll probably have other quality issues as well and the USGI versions aren't really that expensive. If the USGI extractor is also too long, I would measure the length of the stem. If it turns out that the extractor is in spec, your bolt may be faulty. Alternate method:
It really isn't necessary to use the M10 tool. You can chamber the EMPTY .30-'06 case as shown in the last picture above. You would then use a punch and LIGHT hammer taps to pop out the extractor from below. Before doing it this way, however, I would cover the top of the action with a rag, or take other measures to contain the little spring loaded parts as they come shooting out. Personally, I prefer the M10 method for disassembly and the shell casing for reassembly.